Copyright and use

With the exception of some items that have passed into the public domain, materials in Digital Horizons collection are copyrighted. The following outlines how images are acquired, and how they may be used.

Ordering and Use

The materials available on the Digital Horizons website are drawn from the contributing organizations, partnering institutions and individuals. Your acceptance of our photographs in any medium constitutes the acknowledgement, understanding, and acceptance of the terms and conditions of use outlined below. For items belonging to Special Collections please refer to this Reproduction & Use information.


Copyright protection is provided by laws of the United States and other countries to the creators of "original works of authorship" including literary, dramatic, artistic, musical, and certain other intellectual works. This Web site is such a work and is protected by copyright law. United States Copyright Law (Title 17, U.S.C.) restricts unauthorized use of copyrighted material; potential users must obtain permission from the copyright holder.

The nature of historical archival photograph collections means that copyright or other information about restrictions may be difficult or even impossible to determine. Please contact the owning repository if you have additional information regarding the images found on this website.

Fair Use

The doctrine of fair use allows limited use of copyrighted material without permission from the copyright holder. Fair use includes comment, criticism, teaching, and private scholarship. The organizations featured on this website welcome fair use of our Web site and its contents. All other uses require written permission from the owning institution.

Personal Use

Personal use requires written permission from the owner, and includes reference, research, and any other use, provided all such uses are limited to private, non-commercial use.

Commercial Use

You must send an inquiry to the owning repository for any other activities beyond fair or personal use. These include but are not limited to electronic or paper publishing, video production, exhibits, product presentations, interior design, advertising, or similar commercial purposes. Users assume full responsibility for any infringement of copyright and publication rights of reproduced materials.

Ordering reproductions

To order reproductions in traditional photographic media, such as prints or slides, or in digital format, you must contact the owning repository and state your intended use as described above. Prices and policies will vary from owner to owner, and only the image's owner can grant permission for its reproduction and use. The owner of the image is listed on the image itself and in the Repository field of the record attached to the image. Contact information for reproductions or permission inquiries is listed or linked to in the Ordering Information field. In some cases, a specific Credit Line is included on the metadata record as well.